Bacterial genetics is the study of how genetic information is passed down from one bacterium to its offspring or between interbreeding lines of bacteria, how it is expressed, and how the genetic information (genotype) influences the organism's physiology (phenotype). Mutations can occur as a result of genetic variation or the transmission of genetic information across microorganisms. Microbial genetics provides strong tools for understanding cellular processes' control, as well as their functional and pathway organization.
The nutrition, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and death of fungal cells are all covered under fungal physiology. It also encompasses fungi's interactions with their biotic and abiotic environments, as well as physiological responses to environmental stress. Fungal cell physiology has a profound impact on the environment, industrial operations, and human health. Bacterial physiology is a branch of biology that studies the life-sustaining mechanisms and processes that enable bacteria to grow and reproduce.
Metabolic engineering is the deliberate modification of cellular networks such as metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling networks in order to achieve desired outcomes such as increased production of metabolites such as pharmaceuticals, biofuels, and biochemicals, as well as other biotechnology products. In the recent decade, metabolic engineering has progressed significantly. Metabolic engineering is the application of genetic engineering to alter an organism's metabolism.