Despite attempts to improve energy efficiency and diversify energy systems, including greater use of electricity in transportation, rising demand for energy services in the coming decades will necessitate an expanding supply of liquid fuels. Biofuels play a critical role in this scenario. Due to their non-polluting characteristics and cost-competitiveness in comparision to fossil fuels, biofuels are rapidly gaining traction as alternative sources of renewable energy. To accelerate their development, however, the attention is shifting to the deployment of technology that will enhance their yields. Nanoparticles are gaining popularity among scientists due to their unique qualities, which allow them to be used in a variety of industries including agriculture, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and the food industry. In order to improve the performance of these bioprocesses, they are also being investigated in biofuels.