Plant biomass is a valuable source of fuels and raw materials, while being one of the most abundant and underutilized biological resources. Plant biomass has the potential to be a scalable source of feedstock for the production of sustainable fuels and chemicals, as well as the replacement of fossil fuels and natural gas. Biological fermentation of plant-derived biomass is a promising and cutting-edge method for liquid fuel production, but it faces numerous obstacles. Plant biomass is a type of energy that is renewable, environmentally favorable, abundant, and clean. Plant biomass can help to lessen reliance on fossil fuels while also addressing the issue of pollution.