Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting the chemical energy of organic waste, such as low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass, into electricity, hydrogen/chemical products, or other products formed at the cathode by an electrochemical reduction process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), respectively. In comparison to traditional fuel cells, BESs function at lower temperatures, use a wider range of organic substrates, and don't rely on expensive precious metal catalysts. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are rapidly gaining popularity, with a wide range of applications.
The decomposition of organic matter in algal biomass for the production of biofuels such as liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels is referred to as thermochemical conversion. Thermochemical conversion is an efficient way to turn biomass into biofuels. It is divided into two categories: dry (nonaqueous) and hydrothermal procedures. Combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis are the three basic processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass. Despite their importance in catalysis, thermochemical conversion mechanisms have remained largely unexplored until recently.